The Athlete's Kitchen - Sports Nutrition Update from the American College of Sports Medicine

RUNOHIO Monthly Newsletter

Sign Up Now

Print
PDF

The Athlete's Kitchen - Sports Nutrition Update from the American College of Sports Medicine

Written by Nancy Clark MS RD CSSD on 20 July 2018.

Staying on top of the latest sports nutrition information is a challenge. That's why I attend the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). ACSM is a professional organization for sports medicine doctors and health-care providers, sport dietitians, exercise physiologists and sport science researchers. More than 3,000 ACSM members gathered in Minneapolis (May 2018) to share their knowledge and latest research. The following summarizes a Sports Nutrition Update session presented by many leading exercise scientists from around the globe.

Fat vs. Carb.

Gareth Wallis PhD, Univ. Birmingham, UK

Which will better enhance athletic performance: A high carbohydrate or a high fat sports diet? Despite growing interest in a high fat sports diet, research does not support it for athletes who exercise at high intensity. Rather, research supports consuming 3 to 4.5 grams carbohydrate per pound  (7-10 g carb/kg) body weight per day to be well fueled for hard training and competitive events.

Grains, fruits and veggies are obligatory if you want to exercise hard. Some runners eat a high fat diet for training and then switch to carb-loading before a competitive event. Bad idea. The enzymes involved in metabolizing carbohydrate become less active, so the muscles are less able to access carbs for fuel when it is needed for a winning sprint or surge.

Protein for Athletes.

Nicholas Burd PhD, Univ Illinois and Trent Stellingwerff  PhD. Canadian Sport Institute

If you want to build muscle, when is the best time to eat protein: before, during or after you lift weights? It might not actually matter because resistance exercise stimulates a muscle-building effect that is most robust within the first 4 hours but lasts for 1 to 2 days. You need not carry a protein shake around the gym! More important is to pace your protein intake evenly throughout the day.

Resistance exercise is far more potent than a high protein diet for increasing strength and muscle gains. That said, most athletes could expect to see only a gain of about 2 pounds (1 kg) of muscle in 13 weeks. That's not very much compared to what they really want to see.

      Maximal anabolic (muscle-building) effects are seen with about 25 to 30 g protein per meal. More precisely: 0.75 g protein per pound of body weight per day, or 0.1 to 0.2 g protein per pound per meal in young men. More than that has little or no further benefit. However, these recommendations do change with age. If you are >50 years old, you should target an additional 10 grams of high quality protein (milk, egg, fish, soy) per meal. That's just a little bit more: a glass of milk or 1.5 ounces of meat-fish-chicken.

     Despite rumors, protein does not damage the kidneys nor cause a decline in kidney function. Even people with chronic kidney disease should consume the RDA for protein (0.8 g/kg). A high protein diet also does not cause bone loss. Bone is 40% to 50% protein (collagen).

    Over-consuming protein is not only a waste of money but it also stresses the environment. As runners, we need to take a holistic and whole-foods approach to our diets. Natural protein-rich foods, as opposed to processed supplements, are best (if compatible with your training schedule) because they offer a complex and complete matrix that is more effective than processed proteins. One example of the benefits of whole foods can be seen with eggs. A whole egg promotes 40% greater muscle protein synthesis in the 5 hours post-exercise as compared to eating just the egg white (van Vliet AJCN 2017). Nutrient interactions seem to facilitate a more robust response when compared to eating isolated protein.

Sport Supplements

Eric Rawson PhD RD, Messiah College

There is no one single sport supplement that works for all athletes. To better understand why, we need a more specific scientific approach to studying supplements based on age, sex, body size, training status, sport, and genetics. That would help us give better advice to target groups of runners, rather than simply make population-wide recommendations. Many athletes take multiple supplements, so research with "stacked" supplements would also be helpful. Here's some of what we do know:

Creatineenables an athlete to lift harder in the training room—and build more muscle. But not everyone is a responder. For example, 3 of 11 subjects in a research study had a strong positive response, 5 had a slight response—and 3 did not respond at all (Syrotuik, Bell 2004). Why not? Maybe their daily diets impacted their baseline creatine levels?

Creatine is found in meat and other animal proteins.  When a meat-eating athlete goes on a meat-free lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (milk, eggs, beans) for 26 days, his or her creatine levels will drop. (Lukaszuk, 2005). To normalize the level, athletes could take creatine monohydrate supplements (the most effective form of creatine).

Caffeine is a known energy-enhancing sport supplement. Your response to caffeine will depend on your genetics. Caffeine works best when you are starting to fatigue. Runners can consume it in coffee, tea, soda, gels, gum, and pills, preferably consumed with carbs.

Sodium bicarbonate is used by some sprinters to buffer the lactic acid that builds up during intense bursts of exercise. Research suggests peak response times can vary widely, from 40-165 minutes. (Jones 2016 ISSN). This variability makes it hard for exercise scientists to offer firm recommendations; hence, outcomes vary. Sub-elite athletes seem to respond better then elite athletes. Because sodium bicarbonate easily causes nausea and vomiting, a solution it to take it in gastro-resistant capsules.

Fluids and Hydration

This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

When you sweat, you lose proportionately more water than sodium, hence sodium levels in the blood increase with dehydration. The amount of sodium you lose in sweat varies from a lot to a little, related to both sweating rate and how well you are acclimated to exercising in the heat, among other factors. A high concentration of sodium in your blood stimulates thirst.

     Thirsty runners have three ways they deal with replacing fluid losses: hit-or-miss ad lib drinking as desired; drinking to quench thirst; and drinking on a set schedule. The effectiveness of these strategies depends on the individual athletes, availability of fluids, the weather, and exercise intensity and duration. If you happen to have a lot of tattoos, take note: tattooed skin may sweat less and excrete saltier sweat.

Nancy Clark, MS, RD counsels both casual and competitive athletes at her office in Newton, MA (617-795-1875). Her best selling Sports Nutrition Guidebook and food guides for marathoners and new runners offer additional information. They are available at www.NancyClarkRD.com. For her popular online workshop, see www.NutritionSportsExerciseCEUs.com.

 

Read more of Nancy Clark's articles on -  www.runohio.com

Eating for Endurance -  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1472-the-athletes-kitchen-eating-for-endurance

Are You Training Your Gut? - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1451-are-you-training-your-gut

Chocolate and Your Sports Diet - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1431-the-athletes-kitchen-chocolate-and-your-sports-diet

The Athlete’s Kitchen - Why Am I Not Getting Leaner…? - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1407-the-athletes-kitchen-why-am-i-not-getting-leaner

Peanut Butter - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1374-the-athletes-kitchen-all-you-want-to-know-about-peanut-butter

Bread: Good, Bad—or Yummy? http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1357-the-athletes-kitchen-bread-good-bador-yummy

Meal Timing: Does It Matter When You Eat? - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1306-the-athletes-kitchen-meal-timing-does-it-matter-when-you-eat

 The Athlete’s Kitchen - Females, Food & Fertility - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1327-the-athletes-kitchen

The Science of Fuelling for Performance - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1296-the-science-of-fueling-for-performance-

Carbohydrates: Yes? No? Friend? Foe? http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1277-athletes-kitchen-carbohydrates-yes-no-friend-foe

Alcohol & Runners - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1251-the-athletes-kitchen-alcohol-a-runners

2016 Sports Nutrition News from ACSM - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1208-2016-sports-nutrition-news-from-acsm

Taking Your Diet to the Next Level - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1179-the-athletes-kitchen-taking-your-diet-to-the-next-leve l

 The Athletes Kitchen - Fighting Fatigue: Why am I so tired….???  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1131-the-athletes-kitchen-fighting-fatigue-why-am-i-so-tired

 Sports Nutrition Update: What Does the Research Say? -   http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1100-the-athletes-kitchen-sports-nutrition-update-what-does-the-research-say

 The Athlete’s Kitchen For Weight-Sensitive Runners: Food for Thought -http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1088-the-athletes-kitchen-for-weight-sensitive-runners-food-for-thought

 The Athlete’s Kitchen: Hot topics in Food and Nutrition: Updates from the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics -  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1063-the-athletes-kitchen-hot-topics-in-food-and-nutrition-updates-from-the-academy-of-nutrition-a-dietetics

 Fruits & Veggies: Do you eat too few? - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1026-fruits-a-veggies-do-you-eat-too-few

 Energy Bars, Gels & Electrolyte Replacers: Are they essential sports foods? http://runohio.com/index.php/features/1001-the-athletes-kitchen-energy-bars-gels-a-electrolyte-replacers-are-they-essential-sports-foods

  The Athlete’s Kitchen - Travelling Runners & Gas Station Nutrition - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/954-the-athletes-kitchen-traveling-runners-a-gas-station-nutrition-

 The Athlete’s Kitchen - Weight-related Research from The American College of Sports Medicine -http://runohio.com/index.php/features/891-the-athletes-kitchen-weight-related-research-from-the-american-college-of-sports-medicine-acsm

 What’s New? Nutrition Update from the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/870-athletes-kitchen-whats-new-nutrition-update-from-the-academy-of-nutrition-a-dietetics

ADHD, Runners & Appetite Issues -  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/846-the-athletes-kitchen-adhd-runners-a-appetite-issues

To Eat—or Not to Eat: The Pre-Run Question - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/843-the-athletes-kitchen-to-eator-not-to-eat-the-pre-run-question

Super Sports Foods: Do They Really Need to be Exotic? - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/825-the-athletes-kitchen-super-sports-foods-do-they-really-need-to-be-exotic

Carbohydrates: Why are they so confusing? -  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/772-the-athletes-kitchen-carbohydrates-why-are-they-so-confusing

 The Athlete’s Kitchen - Runners Staying Away From Carbs: Really? –  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/768-the-athletes-kitchen-runners-staying-away-from-carbs-really

The Athlete’s Kitchen - Sports Nutrition: What’s Old? What’s New? – http://runohio.com/index.php/features/747-the-athletes-kitchen-sports-nutrition-whats-old-whatsnew

March is National Eating Disorders Awareness Month - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/737-the-athletes-kitchen-march-is-national-eating-disorders-awareness-month

Quality Sports Nutrition Information: At your Fingertips - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/721-the-athletes-kitchen-quality-sports-nutrition-information-at-your-fingertips

Getting Older, Day by Day - http://runohio.com/index.php/features/700-the-athletes-kitchen-getting-older-day-by-day

More Sports Nutrition News You Can Use - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/649-the-athletes-kitchen-more-sports-nutrition-news-you-can-use

Sodium, Muscle Cramps and Sweat Losses: Tips for Sweaty Runners  - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/563-the-athletes-kitchen-sodium-muscle-cramps-and-sweat-losses-tips-for-sweaty-runners

Injured Runners: Nutrition Tips to Hasten Healing - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/537-the-athletes-kitchen-injured-runners-nutrition-tips-to-hasten-healing

Why Can’t I Simply Lose a Few Pounds? Dieting Myths and Gender Differences -  http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/525-the-athletes-kitchen-why-cant-i-simply-lose-a-few-pounds-dieting-myths-and-gender-differences

 Lady Runners without Monthly Menses: A Cause for Concern - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/510-the-athletes-kitchen-lady-runners-without-monthly-menses-a-cause-for-concern

Expanding Your Sports Diet: Seeds and Grains - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/495-the-athletes-kitchen-expanding-your-sports-diet-seeds-and-grains

Protein and Athletes - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/134-the-athletes-kitchen-protein-and-athletes

Why Is Weight Loss So Hard…? - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/195-the-athletes-kitchen-why-is-weight-loss-so-hard

Water: Droplets of Information - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/254-the-athletes-kitchen-water-droplets-of-information

Dieting—Not Allowed! - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/272-the-athletes-kitchen-dietingnot-allowed

Sports Nutrition News from The American College of Sports Medicine - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/360-the-athletes-kitchen-sports-nutrition-news-from-the-american-college-of-sports-medicine

Should We Enable Obesity? - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/469-the-athletes-kitchen-should-we-enable-obesity

Yummy Holiday Gifts for Active Friends - http://www.runohio.com/index.php/features/480-yummy-holiday-gifts-for-active-friends

Fuelling the Ultra Distance Runner –  http://runohio.com/index.php/features/657-the-athletes-kitchen-fueling-the-ultra-distance-runner

www.runohio.com

Current Issue